Hopeful Aging With Dr. John Zeisel   View more episodes

Aired at 09:00 PM on Tuesday, Mar 05, 2013 (3/5/2013)      View all transcripts from this day

Transcript

00:00:02Old people, young people.
00:00:03You have an experience, it leaves an engram.
00:00:06The third factor in remembering is called recall.
00:00:10And this is the last step, it's the most complex, but it is the key to memory.
00:00:15Most people who think about the brain and know about memory know that recalling is a creation of something.
00:00:21It's not just pulling something out of it's not like you have cereal, you put it in the kitchen cabinet, the next morning you go, hmm, I think I'd like some more cereal, you open it up, you take it out, that's not the way memory works.
00:00:33Even though when people say people lose their memory that's what they're picturing.
00:00:37It's more like making a whole new painting from a picture you vaguely remember.
00:00:43Whether it's when I first learned to dance when I was in the 6th grade at viola wolfe's dance class or the first time i saw my son when he was born.
00:00:52The parts of our memory that are put into our brain so your red jacket and your green jacket are going in, sweater, are going into a different part of my brain than all of your facial expressions.
00:01:03The fact that we're in this space is going into a different part of my brain.
00:01:06The way this face looks is different.
00:01:08Recalling this puts these memories together.
00:01:12So let's now talk about dementia.
00:01:13We talked about what is remembering, we talked about what is memory, recall, so what are the problems that people face with dementia and specifically what are the myths that people have about dementia that stand in the way of their being themselves, their creating themselves, ..remembering?
00:01:33And I'd like to do that without any shame because there's no shame in having dementia, just like there's no shame in having any other condition.
00:01:41But there is a lot of despair and despair leads to fear, fear leads to myths, and myths leads to these traps that trap us from really being able to live our lives and to live, for people with dementia to live their lives.
00:01:55Most people think of alzheimer's and dementia in a very simplistic way.
00:01:59They think of it as the loss of short term memory while keeping long-term memory.
00:02:04That's just too simple.
00:02:05So let's clarify a little bit.
00:02:06First of all, dementia very simply means deterioration of cognitive function.
00:02:11Alzheimer's is a set of causes of dementia grouped together because they have the same biological signature called plaques and tangles.
00:02:20There are other dementias, other causes of dementias, including pick's disease, something called lewy bodies disease.
00:02:27The belief that the person is not there, and these other myths that I'm going to talk to you about, that surround alzheimer's and dementia, they make sense.
00:02:38Many people have had the experience, they walk up to somebody with alzheimer's and they say, "well, hi," and the " that does naturally lead to those people saying, "well, I guess mom doesn't know who i " loving families are, are, are thrown for a loop by this condition because they naturally believe their, their loved one is not there.
00:03:03It's natural.
00:03:04It makes sense.
00:03:05It's just not always the case.
00:03:06Only if we reverse these myths can you and your loved ones, the people we work with, the people we love, move forward and have the relationship we'd like.
00:03:15The first myth of dementia is the phrase " everybody with dementia remember family members.
00:03:22They have the love the felt, feelings they felt.
00:03:25They may not remember the names.
00:03:27" it doesn't mean they don't know who you are, they just may not remember your name.
00:03:33There was a movie called iris that was about an english novelist iris murdock and her husband john bailey, he said.
00:03:42..
00:03:43Iris didn't remember me at the end of her " and his wife, audie, interrupted and said, "well, john, you know, she really did," and he said, "well, what do " before she died, about two or three weeks, we went to the theater in downtown oxford and you had to go get the car at the end of the theater.
00:04:00And it took you ten minutes going, ten minutes coming back and during those 20 minutes iris was really nervous where is " " and audie said, "so I turned to her ' and she said, 'no, no, not john, the ' see, she did know who you were.
00:04:19" just 'cause she didn't remember your name it didn't matter.
00:04:23She remembered the feeling and she remembered the security.
00:04:26Everybody always remembers their family members and that's one thing we have to keep in mind, just 'cause they can't remember your name.
00:04:32The second thing we hear a lot is they lose their identity.
00:04:37They lose their self.
00:04:39They're just empty.
00:04:41Well, that's one of the second myths that just is not true in our experience.
00:04:44This is a story, we had somebody living with us whose name was elaine layton, and her daughter said, "my mom used to be billie holiday's drummer.
00:04:52She went all over the world, I didn't see her very much as a kid, but she went all over the world and, and she was the first woman jazz drummer.
00:05:00She was always put up front because she was so pretty and " so we bought elaine a drum set.
00:05:07Elaine knew exactly who she was.
00:05:08She was the person who drummed, just like john bailey was the man who was always there.
00:05:13Elaine began to drum all the time.
00:05:15I once was at a party where she was drumming and I sat down and was playing a little bongo and she said, "you know, you don't play that very well," and I said, "yea, i know, but will you teach me?" and she said, "absolutely.
00:05:27" and this was a woman who had hardly any memory from one day to the next.
00:05:33Three months later I showed up and I was walking down the hall and elaine walked up to me and said, "you ready for your " people don't forget who they are and they don't forget the things that are important to them.
00:05:46The third myth is they have no attention span.
00:05:49My colleague sean caulfield and I run a program called the artists for alzheimer's and, and we, we go to museums and we, we look at artwork with people.
00:05:59We are amazed to see people with dementia sitting for 40 minutes in front of one piece of art explaining what they think, explaining what they see.
00:06:08You will find that they will spend more time than you have ever thought looking at that art, giving their opinion, because they're being treated with respect, they're being treated with dignity, and then they have an attention span.
00:06:24I have no attention span when I'm bored either, by the way, so that helps, too.
00:06:28The fourth myth is they can't make decisions for themselves, so therefore we must make the decisions for them, obviously.
00:06:36We have to tell them what to eat, we have to tell them where to go.
00:06:39This again, in some cases where things are very complex that might be true.
00:06:44What our experience has shown is that people with dementia can make all the choices if those choices are offered in a way that are simple enough for them.
00:06:53The simplest thing to do is to say, "hi, mary.
00:06:56Would you like to wear the red dress or the " most people can make that choice.
00:07:01What we find, and I'm going to be talking about a learning system that we've developed, what we find in this learning system is people with dementia, especially in early and mid stage, can very easily make choices of what interests them, what they want to study, how they want to study and what they want to do.
00:07:17That's the fourth myth that just goes away with our experience.
00:07:21The fifth myth is there's alwaysan aggressive phase.
00:07:26I meet a lot of people who say, "well, my mom's living with me and we take her here and we do this and we do that.
00:07:33" but aggression is not an element in the disease, or in the condition.
00:07:41Often people become aggressive when they're faced with a situation they can't understand.
00:07:46They become aggressive when things get too complex and they get frustrated.
00:07:50It's this lack of impulse control is what causes either what people think of as sexual acting out or aggression or things of that sort.
00:08:00I learned this, again, a friend of mine taught it to me, when we were walking through one of our residences together actually, and as we were walking out there was a man in the kitchen and he waved and she looked over and he said, "nice " and I was very embarrassed.
00:08:16It was just the beginning, I said, "i don't know what to " and she looked at him and she said, "thank you," and we walked out the door.
00:08:22You know, impulse control, they don't have it, so what?
00:08:25It doesn't matter.
00:08:26But it's not aggression and we shouldn't expect to have it and people who say, "my mom has never been aggressive," it's cause they're doing the right thing.
00:08:33The sixth myth that I'dlike to overcome is that they can't enjoy anything because they forget.
00:08:40How often have I taken out a a dvd that i thought I hadn't watched and put it on and go, "you know, I've actually " I remember how it feels, I remember the vague story, I remember the imagery, I just didn't remember the name and I didn't remember having gone to the store.
00:08:56I enjoyed the dvd the first time.
00:08:58There are many things that we experience that we enjoyed that we have forgotten a lot of but we remember the feeling, and so it's very important to realize people with dementia can enjoy their lives.
00:09:10Just because they can't put a name to it the next day or a week later it doesn't really matter.
00:09:16And the biggest myth that we believe about people with dementia is that they cannot learn.
00:09:21And this is really the keystone to all the rest.
00:09:24And the goal of all of this is to get that relationship back.
00:09:27If we can tell a child that his grandmother does remember him, despite the fact that she may not remember his name each time, and that all he has to do is say, "hi, grammy.
00:09:36I'm john and I love you and everything's fine," we have that relationship back.
00:09:41By not explaining, by falling into those myths, we're really cheating them, as well as ourselves, by this lack of relationship that results.
00:09:51Loving families are thrown for a loop.
00:09:53It's a natural condition that happens and they believe their loved one is not there.
00:09:58It comes from another place as well, this, this stigma, this prejudice.
00:10:02It comes from fear.
00:10:04We have lots of research going on today that shows that over 50% of the people in this country and in europe and all over the world are afraid of dementia more than stroke.
00:10:15People are more afraid of dementia than dying of a heart attack.
00:10:18The image that people have in the general public of people with dementia is of some old person who can't remember anything, who's drooling, some dreadful picture.
00:10:28If we don't stop that negative self-fulfilling prophecy we will lose the relationship, that two way street that we can have with people with dementia.
00:10:37If someone is diagnosed with mci as a very early stage or someone says, "oh, my mom has dementia or my mom has alzheimer's," and her care partner believes that person is now on an inevitable and speedy downward slope, there's no engagement, there's no joy, there's doom and gloom, and there's definitely no learning.
00:10:57And I call that the despair model.
00:10:58There is however another model that we can have and that is the hope model, and that hope model begins by being in the present, first of all, by being in the present with that person, being sad, grieving about somebody having a dementia or having alzheimer's, but not saying that's the end, it's not a downward slope, living with it.
00:11:20Appreciating their abilities, there's less depression, less anxiety, less agitation, and better relationships.
00:11:26This switch from the despair model to the hope model about dementia is the key to building relationships, to giving people their personhood back and that's really what we need to understand as a society.
00:11:40Another colleague of mine, cameron kemp, when asked, "what do you mean people with dementia can " he always asked the same question.
00:11:47He says, "how many of you have ever visited somebody with dementia in an assisted program at lunchtime where they've been for perhaps a month, and then sat in their chair, the chair they always sit in at lunch?
00:12:02What do you think they'd say?
00:12:04'" so by the way, the trick is stand up right away and go someplace else, but what does that tell you?
00:12:11It tells you that in a month, or less, they've learned where ..that it's their chair.
00:12:17The reason that works is that there are four learning systems in the brain.
00:12:20And several don't work as well but several work very, very well and the four, first of all, are declarative.
00:12:26Declarative memory is the memory of facts.
00:12:29How many of you know the capital of texas?
00:12:33So we got 5 people out of 50 who remember this fact.
00:12:38The third president of the united states, anybody know what that, who he was?
00:12:44See?
00:12:44And I learned that in school.
00:12:46Um, thomas jefferson was the third president of the united states.
00:12:49Declarative memory is something we don't often keep in mind and remember.
00:12:53People with dementia, that is a problem for them, remembering facts.
00:12:57The second type of memory is called episodic.
00:12:59Episodic memory, the memory of events, like what you had for breakfast last thursday.
00:13:06How many of you remember?
00:13:08Okay.
00:13:08So what you had for breakfast was an event but it's not an important event, it's not an important episode and unless you have the exact same thing for breakfast everyday, you don't remember exactly what you had for breakfast last thursday or perhaps when I ask when's the last time you had a new england lobster?
00:13:22That you might remember because it's not so often and some people love lobster.
00:13:26But when I ask you where were you when the twin towers were attacked, many of you will remember.
00:13:31I was walking down the street with my wife a week ago and she looked over there, she said, "that's the café I was in when " she remembered that moment exquisitely because it was an important episode, not because it was just an episode.
00:13:45So that brings the third type of memory.
00:13:47The third type of learning system, memory system in the brain, is emotional memories.
00:13:52They can be about a person, they can be about a place, they can be about an object, they can be about an event.
00:13:56When something is emotional to us, like the twin towers, like when our children were born, like that first kiss or maybe it was the last kiss, we remember it better.
00:14:05We remember the feeling, as iris murdock remembered john bailey, not the name, not the exact person, but that feeling of the man who was always there.
00:14:14And the last one which is the most powerful type of learning is called procedural.
00:14:19Procedural learning is the learning you do by doing.
00:14:22Some people call it muscle memory, body memory, ..these engrams that get set in our brain, but if we do something over and over and over and over again that engram becomes very, very strong and we don't forget it.
00:14:36It's riding a bike, it's driving a car, it's playing tennis, it's playing croquet, it's playing golf, it's those things that we learn how to do that once we've learned it you feel like you've always learned it.
00:14:49I always knew how to ride a bike.
00:14:50There wasn't a time I didn't know how to learn to ride a bike.
00:14:52So procedural memory does not get hurt with dementia.
00:14:56And that's the learning system that people can still use forever.
00:15:01The strongest type of learning is when all four of these overlap.
00:15:05The first kiss is emotional, it's touch so it's procedural, there's a relationship there so it's building of the self, there's hope, there's a promise, there's pleasure, all the elements of a strong memory.
00:15:18So if we want people with dementia to learn, if we want to create that opportunity, we use all the memory systems at once, not just one, and definitely not just declarative, and not just episodic.
00:15:30So that is the trick for the learning.
00:15:32It's also the trick to learn ourselves.
00:15:33What I'd like to do in the next section is talk about how we can use people's ability to learn, people's ability and interest in learning, to channel that interest into giving people with dementia a life worth living through learning, which is what we're finding we can really do.
00:15:54[Music and applause] with john zeisel, educator,author and host zeiselthank you so much for being a part of the pbsfamily. welcome.
00:16:08 babette, it's a realpleasure being here.
00:16:09 well, we will get backto more you in just a moment.
00:16:12We're delighted to hear that,but right now we're here to ask you for your support.
00:16:16Hopeful aging has lessons thatwe can all use to navigate the very complicated landscape ofgrowing older in america.
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00:16:40 when you contribute at the$75 level we will thank you with a copy of thebook, I'm still here: A breakthrough approachto understanding someone this book focuses on connecting with individualswith alzheimer's through the abilities that don'tdiminish with time, such as understanding music, art, andfacial expressions, and touch.
00:17:01By harnessing the creativity andemotional intelligence of people with alzheimer's it's possibleto offer them a quality life with connection to others and tothe world around them.
00:17:12When you support this station atthe $100 level, we will be able to send you a dvd of the programthat you have been watching, which includes an additional 20minutes of zeisel's lecture, as well as interviews withfamily and friends who have used the methods described in the dvdwith their loved one.
00:17:29When you are able to support usat the $200 level we will send you the complete learning forlife package, which includes the john zeisel, the dvd of the program you have been watching,with the bonus material, and the additional dvdlearning for life.
00:17:47The dvd provides valuableinsights, hints and tips to help caregivers and loved ones tosuccessfully incorporate the principles discussed in hopefulaging into their lives and the lives ofthose they love.
00:18:00The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates to help implement the lessons ofthe instructional dvd.
00:18:07This can help empower those withmemory issues to use their existing skills and creativityto continue to participate and enjoy their surroundings.
00:18:16This is the perfect way to bringall that you have learned from hopeful aging into your life.
00:18:22Please, make that call ofsupport now.
00:18:25Babette: thank you, rudy.
00:18:25Such amazing gifts for thisprogram.
00:18:27 zeisel, the popularperception is that people who receive an alzheimer's diagnosisare basically, and sadly, not only lost to themselvesbut those who love them.
00:18:39How would you respond to that?
00:18:41 babette, it's a myththat people are lost to themselves andlost to others.
00:18:45Nobody ever forgets theirchildren.
00:18:47Nobody ever forgets theirspouse that they've been with for 50 years.
00:18:51But they may forget the name.
00:18:53So what I tell people whoseparents have dementia is to introduce themselves each timethey get there.
00:18:59Say, "hi, I'm john, and I'm yourson and we " " " so both of them have a sense ofbeing there together.
00:19:11The second is the idea thatthere's no future.
00:19:15Dementia is a condition thatlasts between 10 to 15 years.
00:19:19There's a real push today forearly diagnosis.
00:19:22That means it's going tobe a condition that lasts from 15 to 25 years.
00:19:27That does constitute a future.
00:19:30So we've got to startunderstanding how to give meaning and a life worth livingto people with dementia during those 10, 15, 25 years.
00:19:38 I have to tellyou, when you took my hand that was very powerful.
00:19:42And I appreciate thepowerful message that you're sharing withus in this program.
00:19:46John: thank you.
00:19:46 well, the importantmessage of programs like hopeful aging couldn't be shared withoutthe generous support of viewers just like you.
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00:19:58We come to you to help continue that tradition ofunique television.
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00:20:07And for more on that we goto rudy cassillas.
00:20:07Rudy?
00:20:09 here at this station wegive you programming that helps you to discover things thatfascinate and inspire you and that is exactly why during thesefundraising programs we ask that everyone watching in thiscommunity come together to be part of something bigger thanthemselves.
00:20:25When you support this station atthe $75 level we will be happy a breakthrough approach to understanding someone withalzheimer's, by dr. john zeisel.
00:20:37This 272-page soft cover bookfocuses on connecting with individuals with alzheimer'sthrough their abilities that don't diminish with time, suchas understanding music, art, facial expressions and touch.
00:20:50When you are able to supportthis station with a gift at the $200 level we will send you thecomplete learning for life package which includes the book,the dvd of the program you have been watching, plusbonus material, and the learning for lifetraining package.
00:21:06This exceptionally informativedvd was created especially for those caring for aloved one with memory loss in a home setting.
00:21:15The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates to help implement the lessons ofthe instructional dvd.
00:21:21At whatever level you cangive, your generous support is what we need most.
00:21:27Please go to the phone and makethat call now.
00:21:31Thank you.
00:21:32Babette: thank you, rudy.
00:21:33John, can you tell me more aboutyour book, I'm still here?
00:21:36I'm amazed that thefirst chapter is called embracing alzheimer's,which very few people do.
00:21:41You don't embrace thatdiagnosis.
00:21:44John: no.
00:21:44And people don't do it becauseit's not a great diagnosis to have but once you have ityou've gotta live a full life.
00:21:50So what the book is about,number one, is what people with dementia can do, not what theycan't do.
00:21:55The 80, 90 billion neurons thatare left with this illness, or 70 billion, it's so many wehave to focus on what they bring to the table ratherthan what's lost.
00:22:06The second is that we have toturn despair into hope.
00:22:10People get sad and it's fine tobe sad, but then to let that take over your life, itruins your relationship with the other person.
00:22:18Babette: and that's encouraging.
00:22:19We don't want to loseourselves, we don't want to lose the peoplethat we love.
00:22:22John: that's right.
00:22:23Babette: I love this.
00:22:24I love the message and I lovethe information that you're giving us, and the hope thatyou're giving us.
00:22:29And you know what?
00:22:29Giving you the latest researchand a fresh perspective, which this certainly is, that is ourgoal on this pbs station.
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00:22:43And when you share your dollarswith us we use them to make fantastic programs like this,programs that are meaningful and make a difference.
00:22:52 when you are able to goall out for this station at $200 level, we will send you thecomplete learning for life package which includes the book,i'm still john zeisel, the dvd of the programyou have just been watching, plus bonus material andthe additional dvd, learning for life.
00:23:11The dvd provides valuableinsights, hints and tips to help caregivers and loved ones tosuccessfully incorporate the principles discussed ihopefulaging into their lives and the lives of thosethat they love.
00:23:25The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates to help implement the lessons ofthe dvd.
00:23:32This can help empower those withmemory issues to use their existing skills and creativity,to continue to participate and enjoy their surroundings.
00:23:41Remember, we need your financialsupport to continue our mission and to keep bringing youprograms like this one.
00:23:48And now is a time for you tocall in and express your support, and now back to babetteand john zeisel.
00:23:57Babette: thank you, rudy.
00:23:58 zeisel, this program is sopowerful and so emotional.
00:24:02What makes it so different?
00:24:04 well, the differenceis that we're stressing the respect and dignityof the person above all.
00:24:10So there's no, "i know betterthan you," there's no, "you're learning from me,"there's no, "i'm taking care of you." it's a mutualrespectful relationship.
00:24:19 such an important andpowerful topic, and we're going back to more hopeful aging injust a moment.
00:24:24If you've already called withyour financial support, thank you so, so much, andif you haven't, there's still some time left.
00:24:32Take advantage of the greatthank you gifts we've created zeisel's veryimportant work and expertise into yours and your loved ones'lives.
00:24:43We appreciate andvalue your support at whatever level you can give.
00:24:48Thank you so much.
00:24:49 john zeisel.
00:24:55The most rewarding and healing.
00:24:57And that is not a question anymore for me, it's true.
00:25:00And the lessons that I've learned are all about that.
00:25:04That we don't have to be afraid of old age, we don't have to fear it, we don't have to worry about losing relationships, and in fact we should start now, and I think this is why we call it hopeful aging, we can have a positive experience aging no matter what.
00:25:21Woman: you have to adapt to them.
00:25:24 they're still there and they have their own opinions.
00:25:27It's really nice to see.
00:25:29 it was very important for him to feel useful.
00:25:31It was a main part of his personality, always.
00:25:35It just made him feel needed.
00:25:37 john zeisel believes, and I now believe, that there are important things left in the minds of people with alzheimer's that are often overlooked because the disability is so severe.
00:25:54But there is a sense of wonder, there are artistic senses that are still there.
00:26:02[Music - applause] so I know you're all waiting for the meat in the sandwich, but I'm not going to give that to you.
00:26:13What I'm going to give you, however, is, is, is sort of an insight into a whole way of learning and a whole system of learning that we've been developing for 2 years that build on all of those principles.
00:26:27So successful learning works best when there are these three elements, whether you have dementia or not and that's a very important part.
00:26:35So the first one is the subject matter has to be meaningful.
00:26:39If it's not meaningful, if it's just busy work, people won't remember, they won't learn.
00:26:45I didn't learn busy work when I was in school.
00:26:49My kids didn't learn busy work when they were in school.
00:26:52But when it meant something to them they did.
00:26:54The second element of successful learning is that it's personal, that has something to do with the sense of who you are and the sense of self.
00:27:02Everything we know is personal.
00:27:04So knowledge has to be personal.
00:27:06And the third is it has to rely on procedural and emotional learning systems.
00:27:10So those are the threeelements of learning: Meaning, personal contentand procedural learning.
00:27:18Now there are six characteristics of successful learning that we've built into this learning system that we've developed.
00:27:26The first one is that learning, to be successful, is non-competitive.
00:27:30So competition is okay for certain things, maybe to learn how to play tennis better, but learning that is non-competitive is better than when it is competitive.
00:27:38It sits better, it lasts longer.
00:27:41The second thing is when it's based on existing skills.
00:27:44When what the person can do is part of already, what they already have as skills, is built into the learning system.
00:27:52The third is using personal experience.
00:27:54So if I already have certain experiences, if I already know how to do something and you build that into my learning system I'm going to learn better.
00:28:01The fourth is building in a link to that hardwired curiosity that I talked about.
00:28:06If you get me going because I'm curious, because I want to learn, I want to delve into something, I'm going to learn better.
00:28:13The fifth is linking the learning to some hardwired ability and specifically caring and compassion for others.
00:28:22And the last is thatlearning is linked to hardwired arts and creativity.
00:28:27So my colleague sean caulfield and I invented a program called artists for alzheimer's a while ago, artists come in and work with people with dementia just to be part of their lives, to enrich their lives.
00:28:39What you see around you is the art that was created by these art classes.
00:28:43And what we realized after a while was you could see into the minds of people, as well as get into their memories.
00:28:51Behind me is a painting of a bear.
00:28:53And it was designed by wolf, a man who had been in a concentration camp for 5 years.
00:29:00He never spoke, he never spoke.
00:29:03And I was in new york where he was living and I held it up as he was walking down the hall.
00:29:09" that was 6 months after he painted that painting.
00:29:14If you get people with, with, with any kind of, of cognitive issues, whether they're just being old and have cognitive issues or have dementia and have cognitive issues, and give them something meaningful and, and show them that you respect them, their memories are strong and vibrant and that's what we're learning.
00:29:33Creativity, going back to thatearly part of why our brains exist, our brains exist to becurious and creative.
00:29:42That's why we're here and it's how we've survived.
00:29:45So linking into it is an essential part of this.
00:29:49We call it the c-map program.
00:29:53C-map is actually an abbreviation for cognitive map and cognitive map to use again the brain is that system in our brain that helps us find out where we are, where we're going that makes sense of the world around us.
00:30:10So the cognitive map is the organizing principle that our brains develop.
00:30:14So I asked you for example how you get back to your car and if you have any idea about how you'd get back to your car from here, it's your cognitive map that's creating that.
00:30:26The c-map learning process that we've developed supports everybody's cognitive map whether you have dementia or not, the, the system is designed to get our brains back on track and to help people find out where they are, see where they're going, understand things better.
00:30:43It's a learning system that's based on saying to people, "what would you like to learn?
00:30:47" because we want to create a learning system that gives people meaning, that's personal, that's all those things that I talked about before.
00:30:57We're looking at the neurosciences as a way to understand the brain so that when we say people with dementia can learn, when we develop this system based on our understanding of how the brain works and of what all these different neuroscientists have been studying for years to understand mental processes.
00:31:14There are eight principles and I would like to unpack them one at a time.
00:31:19So the first one is the subjectmatter has to be meaningful.
00:31:21Which is to say, well what would you like to do today dad?
00:31:25What, what would you like to learn about?
00:31:26Whether it's going to a museum or whether it's creating holiday cards, it doesn't matter what that is, the issue is to say, what's meaningful to you and then to help that person achieve that, that, their goal.
00:31:40We do that by creating opportunities.
00:31:43Now, setting up the opportunity is really very simple if you care about it.
00:31:48Somebody says I want to paint, you create the objects and the setting that it won't bother anybody.
00:31:53If somebody says they want to learn how to play croquette, one gets a croquette set.
00:31:57There's no limit to creating those opportunities once one has listened to the person.
00:32:03The third is choice.
00:32:03A choice can always be given to people, what would you like to learn specifically is what we're talking about.
00:32:09The fourth element is building on people's experience.
00:32:14Everybody has experience.
00:32:15Now it's not simply saying, your whole life you used to do x so we're going to have you do x again.
00:32:21We had somebody living with us who, who was a postman, and when we said how would you like to deliver the mail to everybody, he said I was a postman for 50 years, I hate delivering mail and I'm not interested in doing that.
00:32:33If you build on people's experience and give them a sense of self back, they don't do those things that people say or picture people with dementia doing.
00:32:43The fifth issue is basic skills.
00:32:46Now what do we mean by exploiting people's basic skills?
00:32:49We mean using the hardwired abilities that they have.
00:32:53Long-lasting brain skills, I talked about one hardwired skill being compassion, etcetera, there are a bunch of others that people never lose.
00:33:01The first one is sorting.
00:33:04Somebody says I'm interested in learning about comedy, you can look up a lot of jokes and you can sort the funny jokes and the not funny jokes.
00:33:15You can read all the jokes, is this funny, nope, let's put it in this box, funny oh yea, this is very funny let's put it here, sorting between those two things.
00:33:21Matching is another hardwired ability.
00:33:24It's a learning principle that people never forget.
00:33:27If you take a, a photocopy, a color photocopy of a whole bunch of objects and put them out and then put all the objects here and say let's match those objects to one another.
00:33:38Another type of matching is templates, so you can say well we're going to set the table but the table can be, the table mat can be a, a table setting, so people know what to do.
00:33:48They don't have to think about, they're matching the table.
00:33:51Uh, pouring, pouring things from one object into another is an equally hardwired skill as sorting, matching, etcetera.
00:33:59Reading, for people who can read, and there are ways to test people's reading is also a hardwired skill.
00:34:04Once they've got it because they've learned how to read, once they can read forever, you have to find out what the right type is, you have to find out what kinds of things they can read, but that's another skill to build on, if people can.
00:34:15You can easily say, we're going to make dinner or we're going to learn how to make new recipes and you take the recipe book and you break it up so that the templates are easier to follow, and you get all of the material that needs to go in but instead of saying, here's the list, first you have to take the flour and put the meat in the flour and fry it and then put it in something else, you can have pictures or you could take each of the objects and start off by having color photocopies of the objects put onto templates and say the first step is let's go to the cupboard and get the materials we need making an incredibly good meal and learning how to do that and getting the person to say, now I know how to do that and do it again, eventually they'll in fact learn how to cook that meal.
00:35:08The sixth element, was feelings, the emotional memory.
00:35:11If you can work on hardwired feelings, if you can bring those into the picture people can learn twice as well.
00:35:17So caring for other people, I told you this is hardwired, it's in our dna, making valentine cards for other people is a, is a way of building in caring.
00:35:31One of the things that happened with our c-map group was one person got sick, and had to go to the hospital.
00:35:40What do you think they did first?
00:35:42Made cards.
00:35:43What do you think they did second?
00:35:44They all got together, they said we've got to go to the hospital to visit this man and, and all of a sudden it was amazing to see seven people with dementia all walking into the hospital to visit somebody else because they cared for him.
00:35:58Again that, that building in hard, hardwired caring is, can be done anywhere.
00:36:04It's very easy to do that at home, to read a newspaper, to find the, the articles about the needy, to do something for them, to say let's do it.
00:36:12It just needs some creativity to get people to learn.
00:36:15 wong was in the hospital and they said we want to go, nobody said it's too hard to get you there.
00:36:22We all said, great let's all go visit mr.
00:36:23Wong and it took half a day, and they felt good because it was visiting their friend that they learn with, that's part of the system.
00:36:33Hardwired feelings include joy, they include curiosity, they include anger at things.
00:36:39Caring for others is a big one.
00:36:40One of the interesting things that happened wong wong explained that he was brought up in a chinese restaurant, and they said well what does that mean, and he said well we used to make lots of wontons.
00:36:52So there were two things that happened, first they said would you teach us how to make wontons, and he said absolutely, and now he felt wonderful because he knew who he was.
00:37:00The second thing they said is let's make wontons for other people.
00:37:03They cooked them, they fried them up.
00:37:05And they said well we can't serve the wontons to our friends if we don't taste them first.
00:37:11Right, because that wouldn't work, we gotta make sure they're good wontons.
00:37:14So they voted, one person votes yes, she voted no, and the, and the team by the way said she's always, she's always a negative person so she doesn't count.
00:37:23She voted yes and lo and behold they ate the wontons and they made more wontons and they served them to other people.
00:37:29Just helping other people is so hardwired for us it helps us learn.
00:37:35And you can do this at home, you can do this in a, in a group setting, it doesn't matter.
00:37:40In every place you can say, how can we help other people?
00:37:44The seventh principle isthat we have to build on procedural and emotionallearning systems, not episodic anddeclarative systems.
00:37:52Every morning at home instead of thinking of it as, I've got to feed that person, get them in, get them out of the kitchen, and rather say okay the morning is a time when we get together, we spend time together, we talk about whatever comes up.
00:38:09It doesn't matter what they remember.
00:38:10They remember it's good news, it's bad news, they talk to each other about it.
00:38:14And the last one, the last learning principle is very important, don't test.
00:38:20Avoid testing.
00:38:20The minute you say, "but didyou, do you remember yesterday," or "but, what did we learn yesterday," as opposed to saying "here's what we learned yesterday," you reverse the whole system.
00:38:32So what does the person get out of all this?
00:38:34What is all this about?
00:38:35Is it merely because we're trying to say, yes people with dementia should learn?
00:38:39This story about keeping the brain healthy, about how does the brain work, about creativity, about curiosity, and about learning, people with dementia can have a life worth living.
00:38:50And they can have a life worth living if we give them that dignity and that respect, but if we help them learn, if we help their brains do what they're supposed to be doing, and what they were born to do which is be curious and be creative.
00:39:02By doing the kinds of things I've been talking about, we're giving people with dementiatheir human rights.
00:39:07And I consider what we are about and what many people in this field are about, trying to help people age with hope, age with dignity, is that it's a human rights issue.
00:39:19We're giving people dignity, we're giving people the ability to have self-fulfillment, to participate in society, to receive and give care to others, and we're giving them the amount of independence, the degree of independence that they can, they can handle.
00:39:34Those are human rights issues.
00:39:36Societies are judged by how they treat their most vulnerable citizens.
00:39:39And we will be judged by that.
00:39:40And the most vulnerable citizens we have today in our society are people with dementia.
00:39:45And so this hope model that, that underlies the learning, and that underlies this whole view towards dementia, the one that says embrace the present, let's not, let's grieve but let's not let that grief dominate how we treat each other.
00:40:02If you get people with, with, with any kind of, of cognitive issues, whether they're just being old and have cognitive issues or have dementia and have cognitive issues, and give them something meaningful and, and show them that you respect them, their memories are strong and vibrant and that's what we're learning.
00:40:21Doing the kinds of things we're talking about, by understanding the brain, by being in the present, by understanding what people can do rather than what they can't, we will build and maintain the relationships between people with dementia and ourselves, people with dementia and others, which will be a benefit for the person, for families, for paid caregivers, and for society as a whole.
00:40:44That we will maintain those relationships that mean something to us and that we won't abandon our relationships to our parents, to our spouses, and to the families that we love.
00:40:53Thank you.
00:40:54[Music - applause] hi, I am babettedavidson and I'm in the studio john zeisel, host ofhopeful aging, and not only are we enjoying this greatprogram but we're also here to ask you for your support.
00:41:07It's the valuable dollars thatwe raise through programming like this that enables us tocontinue to bring programs like this to everyone in ourcommunity.
00:41:17So please, take amoment right now and call the number on your screen.
00:41:21When you do, we havesome great ways to thank you foryour generosity.
00:41:25And for more on that we go torudy casillas.
00:41:28Rudy: thank you, babette.
00:41:29When you contribute at the $75level we will be happy to send abreakthrough approach to understanding someone withalzheimer's by dr. john zeisel.
00:41:39When you support this station atthe $100 level we will thank you with a dvd of the program thatyou have been watching, which zeisel's lecture, as well as interviews withfamily and friends who have used the methods described in the dvdwith their loved one.
00:41:56When you are able to support usat the $200 level we will send you the complete learning forlife package which includes the john zeisel, the dvd of the program you have been watchingplus bonus material, and the additional dvd learning forlife.
00:42:13This specially createdinstructional dvd is tailored to the needs of viewers caringfor a person with memory loss in a home setting.
00:42:22The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates which can be printed out andused and reused to help organize an environment that encourageslearning, memory, and empowers those with memory issues to usetheir existing skills and creativity to continueto participate and enjoy their surroundings.
00:42:42At whatever level you can give,your generous support is what we need most.
00:42:47Please go to the phone and makethat call now.
00:42:51And now more from babette anddr. zeisel.
00:42:53 we all know that activeengagement with our world and our community is vital no matterwhat our age.
00:42:59And for those of you who haveengaged with us by calling the number on your screen we thankyou so much.
00:43:05 zeisel, so much of whatyou talk about is so contrary, perhaps, to whatwe've heard about alzheimer's in the community.
00:43:13 there are three things ithink that are new messages, or important messages that are notdone a lot.
00:43:18The first is that we have to seethe positive through the fog of this condition, throughalzheimer's and dementia, even if we're sad, even if there areproblems.
00:43:28The second is that engagement.
00:43:30You talked about activeengagement, that that's the antidote to all thesymptoms that we find.
00:43:34It's the antidote to anxiety,it's the antidote to aggression, it's the antidote to agitationand it's the antidote to apathy and that antidote means wecan overcome the symptoms through active engagement.
00:43:48And what does active engagementmean?
00:43:50And this is the third message,it means a life worth living through meaningful thingsfor people with dementia, through art, through music,and through learning, which is one of the bigmessages of this program.
00:44:02 this is such a powerfuland hopeful message.
00:44:05We all want to be engaged inthings that have meaning, and meaningful engagementis what we're all about here at public television.
00:44:12So please go to your phone andengage with us directly.
00:44:16Make that call.
00:44:16Show that you support the kindsof programs that make you think, entertain and engage you, likehopeful aging and when you do call we have some greatways to say thank you, and rudy casillas ishere to tell you more.
00:44:29 when you contributeat the $75 level we will thank you witha copy of the book a breakthroughapproach to understanding someone with alzheimer'sby dr. john zeisel.
00:44:39This book focuses on connectingwith individuals with alzheimer's through theabilities that don't diminish with time, such asunderstanding music, art and facial expressions,and touch.
00:44:50By harnessing the creativity andemotional intelligence of people with alzheimer's it's possibleto offer them a quality life with connection to others and tothe world around them.
00:45:00When you support this station atthe $100 level we will be able to send you a dvd of the programthat you have been watching, which includes an additional 20minutes of zeisel's lecture as well as interviews withfamily and friends who have used the methods described in the dvdwith their loved one.
00:45:18When you are able to support usat the $200 level we will send you the complete learning forlife package which includes john zeisel, the dvd of the program you have beenwatching plus bonus material and the additional dvdlearning for life.
00:45:36The dvd provides valuableinsights, hints and tips to help caregivers and loved ones tosuccessfully incorporate the principles discussed inhopeful aging into their lives and the lives of thosethat they love.
00:45:49The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates to help implement the lessons ofthe instructional dvd.
00:45:56This can help empower those withmemory issues to use their existing skills and creativityto continue to participate and enjoy their surroundings.
00:46:05This is the perfect way to bringall that you have learned from hopeful aging into your life.
00:46:11Please make that call of supportnow.
00:46:13 zeisel, the book issuch a great resource for the alzheimer's journey, as youcall it, but you put together a package of tremendousmaterial to assist us.
00:46:23Can you talk more about how thedvds and templates, how does that all work in helping us aswe take the alzheimer's journey?
00:46:31 so what the dvd includesis procedures to use, questions to ask.
00:46:36We always say start byintroducing yourself, start by asking the person if they'rewilling to do an activity.
00:46:41Start by showing themand using templates and modeling how to do it.
00:46:46So instead of saying, "go dothis," you say, "here are the three steps," and they followthe three steps.
00:46:51It's not quite like paintingby the numbers but it's more or less that.
00:46:56So they don't have tofigure out what the whole painting's gonna bebut they make a bunch and many importantdecisions along the way.
00:47:02So they're followinga set of procedures and they rememberthem eventually.
00:47:07And the dvd includes thosetemplates which are those sets of procedures.
00:47:11And what you should really do isopen up t he dvd, pick one or another of these activities todo, follow them, that's that five minutes I was talkingabout, get the five minutes right, then do a second one,then do a third one, and you'll find that it can fill the day.
00:47:25 so there are actualthings for people to walk through and do that will make adifference in how they look at and treat this in their ownfamily?
00:47:35 and on there, thereare people I work at hearthstone and at the I'mstill here foundation who are demonstratinghow to do it.
00:47:42So the demonstrations are rightthere, too.
00:47:44so you're not just reading it, you're actuallyseeing how it should operate?
00:47:48John: yes.
00:47:48Babette: that's a greatresource.
00:47:50It's amazing to me that choicecreates so much meaning.
00:47:53John: absolutely.
00:47:54 but you know, choiceand empowerment, creativity, engagement with our loved onesand our community, these are all things that you and i, we allvalue.
00:48:04This station values those, too.
00:48:06From programs like downtownabbey to nova to hopeful aging, this station, your station,offers you and this community choice, a pretty importantchoice, and we give you a chance to engage with television thatchanges how you see the world.
00:48:21But you know what, we needyour help to continue to make this a reality.
00:48:26You now have a choice.
00:48:27You can go to your phone andmake the call, the numbers are on the bottom of your screen, ornot.
00:48:33But when you do, we have somemarvelous ways to say thank you.
00:48:37 when you contribute at the$200 level we will send you the complete learning for lifepackage which includes the book, I'm still here, the dvd of theprogram you've been watching and the additional dvd, learning forlife.
00:48:51Your support is criticaland is deeply appreciated by everyone in this community.
00:48:56 zeisel, thank youso much for bringing this inspirational program to pbs.
00:49:01And now that it's over and we'veall enjoyed it, for all of us watching it, what would you likeus to take with us?
00:49:08 don't let the burdenof dementia and alzheimer's in your family bring you down.
00:49:13The second thing is,don't ever underestimate the person with dementia.
00:49:18Even when we go to the museumand I say, "that person won't be able to describe this painting,"they do it anyway.
00:49:25I'm always surprised.
00:49:26The third is, no one's gonna dothis for us.
00:49:30You gotta do it yourself.
00:49:31And the fourth one is take careof yourself.
00:49:34You can't always be taking careof someone else without taking care of yourself, and only bytaking care of yourself will you have the energy to do all ofthis hard work.
00:49:45Babette: it's such an importantmessage.
00:49:46Thank you so much forbeing with us and sharing your time and your information.
00:49:50We want to thank rudy cassillasand to all of you who have made that call of support.
00:49:56You have no idea what adifference you make to this station with your dollars.
00:50:01I am so proud of the shows thatpbs and this station are able to make available to you and if youhaven't yet seized the opportunity to be a part of thisgreat initiative, this is it, we are out of time, we need you togo right now to the phone, call the number on your screen, andlet this station know that programs like hopeful aging areexactly the type of inspiration, encouragement andinformation that you expect and need from your pbs station.
00:50:30So dr. zeisel, thank you again.
00:50:32John: thank you.
00:50:33 and to each of you,thank you for making a difference right now, righthere, at this station.
00:50:39] [captioning provided by santa feproductions] explore new worlds and new ideas through programs like this.
00:51:36Made available for everyone through contributions to yourpbs station from viewers like you.
00:51:43Thank you.
00:00:00From viewers like you.
00:00:03Thank you.
00:00:22[Music] it was just an understanding; I would take care of him.
00:00:30I would do whatever needed to be done.
00:00:33[Music] she denied that there was anything wrong.
00:00:41And her own father died of alzheimer's.
00:00:45[Music] alzheimer's was the last thing I thought about.
00:00:55I thought of over-work, I thought of too many things going on at once, too many programs he was handling at once- I thought of a zillion things.
00:01:05The last thing I thought of was that he was losing his mind.
00:01:10[Music] john zeisel and I'm committed to giving people with dementia a life worth living.
00:01:23I'm going to share stories with you of people I've worked with and those who've lived in assisted living residences that I've help run.
00:01:30Through my years of experience and through the neuroscience of recent years I've gathered lessons that have helped shape my philosophy which I call the I'm still here approach.
00:01:39Join me as we discuss the exciting prospect of hopeful aging.
00:01:44[Music and applause] everything that I'm going to talk about today is available to people living athome, it's for everyone living with dementia and theirpartners, in every situation, and at any stage of dementia.
00:02:06Everybody's concerned about memory, about dementia, about alzheimer's.
00:02:11But before we look at memory loss I'd like to look at what's positive, what is memory and how does remembering work?
00:02:18There are in our brains 100 billion neurons.
00:02:23Now 100 billion neurons for comparison, there are only 7 billion people on earth and we just reached that number.
00:02:31The second enabler is hardwired elements in our brain.
00:02:39..
00:02:41That we're born with these things.
00:02:42It's not like a program that gets added to the computer.
00:02:45It's what we buy the computer with.
00:02:47What are hardwired elements in our brain?
00:02:49Well, the first is facial expressions.
00:02:52Every face, every culture has the same understanding of facial expressions.
00:02:57There's no culture that when you go like this they say you're sad.
00:03:00So sadness, happy and disgust is one of the, one of the facial expressions every culture knows.
00:03:06Eh, like this, because we need it to survive, we needed to know that when somebody looked like this we shouldn't eat the little berries they've been eating because they're going to fall over.
00:03:16So that's why people with dementia smile at residents all the time, 'cause they know if I smile there'll be a reaction.
00:03:22We find our way by landmarks.
00:03:25If you are going to think about how you get from here back to your car you'll think about going to the door, going out the door, turning left at a corner, turning right, there's the entrance, wherever that is.
00:03:36Those are landmarks.
00:03:37All of our brains find our way, are hardwired to find our way using landmarks and people with dementia find their way the same way.
00:03:47Touch we now know is, is, is hardwired.
00:03:50So when I was born I was crying and messy and I was taken away and cleaned up until I behaved myself and brought back to my mother.
00:03:57Now when babies are born they're immediately put on their mother's breast because the neurotransmitter oxytocin begins to form those connections and we now know that.
00:04:08So again, in dementia we touch each other a lot.
00:04:11We hold hands, we say it's okay, we use that, so all of these hardwired elements are in the brain.
00:04:17That's a second enabler, as is all art, which many people believe came before language, were art and singing and song.
00:04:26The last enabler is curiosity, to discover and to invent.
00:04:31The second thing our brain does other than be curious and creative, is it creates our identity.
00:04:38The building blocks to our identity are coming out of our brain.
00:04:42Our experience, our environment and our social roles is what really is the definition of ourselves and our brains do that.
00:04:52When I was in the 9th grade I won a medal at playing tennis at the school and the medal says mentis sana in corpore sana which is latin for sound in body, sound in mind.
00:05:06And in fact that's what all the research is now showing.
00:05:09Namely that our heart health, pancreas health, one has to do with diabetes, healthy skin related to cancers and other heath issues, and our brain are all connected.
00:05:20So we have to treat ourselves well in all of those areas in order to do anything about dementia or brain health.
00:05:27The second part about health and brain health is that all of our systems need exercise, sleep and diet.
00:05:35Those are the three basic things.
00:05:36The other elements that our systems need in addition to the core elements of diet, sleep and exercise, are less toxicity, less smoke, less living in cities, less stress, through meditation perhaps, or whatever other elements they are, we know that stress decreases our immune system functioning, creativity and the arts, being able to be creative.
00:05:57Last of all, learning.
00:05:58Learning, it turns out, is an element of our keeping healthy.
00:06:02Other people are now calling learning "mind exercise" or " learning is different, it's meaningful stimulation, it's personal stimulation.
00:06:16It has to do with who we are with our identity and with our health.
00:06:19Before looking at what doesn't work I do want to spend one more minute looking at what does work, specifically what is memory and how does remembering work?
00:06:27Remembering has three parts.
00:06:29The first is having an experience and embedding it in our brains.
00:06:33Being here is the beginning of an embedding experience for you and for me.
00:06:39The second is that that embedding of an experience leaves a trace in your brain called an engram.
00:06:46 healthy people, sick people, old people, young people.
00:06:51You have an experience, it leaves an engram.
00:06:54The third factor in remembering is called recall.
00:06:58And this is the last step, it's the most complex, but it is the key to memory.
00:07:03Most people who think about the brain and know about memory know that recalling is a creation of something.
00:07:09It's not just pulling something out of it's not like you have cereal, you put it in the kitchen cabinet, the next morning you go, hmm, I think I'd like some more cereal, you open it up, you take it out, that's not the way memory works.
00:07:20Even though when people say people lose their memory that's what they're picturing.
00:07:25It's more like making a whole new painting from a picture you vaguely remember.
00:07:31Whether it's when I first learned to dance when I was in the 6th grade at viola wolfe's dance class or the first time i saw my son when he was born.
00:07:39The parts of our memory that are put into our brain so your red jacket and your green jacket are going in, sweater, are going into a different part of my brain than all of your facial expressions.
00:07:51The fact that we're in this space is going into a different part of my brain.
00:07:54The way this face looks is different.
00:07:56Recalling this puts these memories together.
00:07:59So let's now talk about deme face with dementia and specifically what are the myths that people have about dementia that stand in the way of their being themselves, their creating themselves, ..remembering?
00:08:21And I'd like to do that without any shame because there's no shame in having dementia, just like there's no shame in having any other condition.
00:08:29But there is a lot of despair and despair leads to fear, fear leads to myths, and myths leads to these traps that trap us from really being able to live our lives and to live, for people with dementia to live their lives.
00:08:43Most people think of alzheimer's and dementia in a very simplistic way.
00:08:47They think of it as the loss of short term memory while keeping long-term memory.
00:08:52That's just too simple.
00:08:53So let's clarify a little bit.
00:08:54First of all, dementia very simply means deterioration of cognitive function.
00:08:59Alzheimer's is a set of causes of dementia grouped together because they have the same biological signature called plaques and tangles.
00:09:08There are other dementias, other causes of dementias, including pick's disease, something called lewy bodies disease.
00:09:14The belief that the person is not there, and these other myths that I'm going to talk to you about, that surround alzheimer's and dementia, they make sense.
00:09:26Many people have had the experience, they walk up to somebody with alzheimer's and they say, "well, hi," and the " that does naturally lead to those people saying, "well, I guess mom doesn't know who i " loving families are, are, are thrown for a loop by this condition because they naturally believe their, their loved one is not there.
00:09:51It's natural.
00:09:52It makes sense.
00:09:53It's just not always the case.
00:09:54Only if we reverse these myths can you and your loved ones, the people we work with, the people we love, move forward and have the relationship we'd like.
00:10:03The first myth of dementia is the phrase " everybody with dementia remember family members.
00:10:10They have the love the felt, feelings they felt.
00:10:13They may not remember the names.
00:10:15" it doesn't mean they don't know who you are, they just may not remember your name.
00:10:20There was a movie called iris that was about an english novelist iris murdock and her husband john bailey, he said.
00:10:30..
00:10:31Iris didn't remember me at the end of her " and his wife, audie, interrupted and said, "well, john, you know, she really did," and he said, "well, what do " before she died, about two or three weeks, we went to the theater in downtown oxford and you had to go get the car at the end of the theater.
00:10:48And it took you ten minutes going, ten minutes coming back and during those 20 minutes iris was really nervous where is " " and audie said, "so I turned to her ' and she said, 'no, no, not john, the ' see, she did know who you were.
00:11:07" just 'cause she didn't remember your name it didn't matter.
00:11:11She remembered the feeling and she remembered the security.
00:11:14Everybody always remembers their family members and that's one thing we have to keep in mind, just 'cause they can't remember your name.
00:11:20The second thing we hear a lot is they lose their identity.
00:11:25They lose their self.
00:11:27They're just empty.
00:11:28Well, that's one of the second myths that just is not true in our experience.
00:11:32This is a story, we had somebody living with us whose name was elaine layton, and her daughter said, "my mom used to be billie holiday's drummer.
00:11:40She went all over the world, I didn't see her very much as a kid, but she went all over the world and, and she was the first woman jazz drummer.
00:11:48She was always put up front because she was so pretty and " so we bought elaine a drum set.
00:11:55Elaine knew exactly who she was.
00:11:56She was the person who drummed, just like john bailey was the man who was always there.
00:12:01Elaine began to drum all the time.
00:12:03I once was at a party where she was drumming and I sat down and was playing a little bongo and she said, "you know, you don't play that very well," and I said, "yea, i know, but will you teach me?" and she said, "absolutely.
00:12:15" and this was a woman who had hardly any memory from one day to the next.
00:12:21Three months later I showed up and I was walking down the hall and elaine walked up to me and said, "you ready for your " people don't forget who they are and they don't forget the things that are important to them.
00:12:34The third myth is they have no attention span.
00:12:37My colleague sean caulfield and I run a program called the artists for alzheimer's and, and we, we go to museums and we, we look at artwork with people.
00:12:47We are amazed to see people with dementia sitting for 40 minutes in front of one piece of art explaining what they think, explaining what they see.
00:12:56You will find that they will spend more time than you have ever thought looking at that art, giving their opinion, because they're being treated with respect, they're being treated with dignity, and then they have an attention span.
00:13:12I have no attention span when I'm bored either, by the way, so that helps, too.
00:13:16The fourth myth is they can't make decisions for themselves, so therefore we must make the decisions for them, obviously.
00:13:24We have to tell them what to eat, we have to tell them where to go.
00:13:27This again, in some cases where things are very complex that might be true.
00:13:31What our experience has shown is that people with dementia can make all the choices if those choices are offered in a way that are simple enough for them.
00:13:41The simplest thing to do is to say, "hi, mary.
00:13:44Would you like to wear the red dress or the " most people can make that choice.
00:13:49What we find, and I'm going to be talking about a learning system that we've developed, what we find in this learning system is people with dementia, especially in early and mid stage, can very easily make choices of what interests them, what they want to study, how they want to study and what they want to do.
00:14:05That's the fourth myth that just goes away with our experience.
00:14:09The fifth myth is there's alwaysan aggressive phase.
00:14:14I meet a lot of people who say, "well, my mom's living with me and we take her here and we do this and we do that.
00:14:20" but aggression is not an element in the disease, or in the condition.
00:14:28Often people become aggressive when they're faced with a situation they can't understand.
00:14:33They become aggressive when things get too complex and they get frustrated.
00:14:38It's this lack of impulse control is what causes either what people think of as sexual acting out or aggression or things of that sort.
00:14:48I learned this, again, a friend of mine taught it to me, when we were walking through one of our residences together actually, and as we were walking out there was a man in the kitchen and he waved and she looked over and he said, "nice " and I was very embarrassed.
00:15:04It was just the beginning, I said, "i don't know what to " and she looked at him and she said, "thank you," and we walked out the door.
00:15:09You know, impulse control, they don't have it, so what?
00:15:13It doesn't matter.
00:15:14But it's not aggression and we shouldn't expect to have it and people who say, "my mom has never been aggressive," it's cause they're doing the right thing.
00:15:21The sixth myth that I'dlike to overcome is that they c't enjoy anything because they forget.
00:15:28How often have I taken out a dvd that I thought I hadn't watched and put it on and go, "you know, I've actually " I remember how it feels, I remember the vague story, I remember the imagery, I just didn't remember the name and I didn't remember having gone to the store.
00:15:44I enjoyed the dvd the first time.
00:15:45There are many things that we experience that we enjoyed that we have forgotten a lot of but we remember the feeling, and so it's very important to realize people with dementia can enjoy their lives.
00:15:58Just because they can't put a name to it the next day or a week later it doesn't really matter.
00:16:04And the biggest myth that we believe about people with dementia is that they cannot learn.
00:16:09And this is really the keystone to all the rest.
00:16:12And the goal of all of this is to get that relationship back.
00:16:15If we can tell a child that his grandmother does remember him, despite the fact that she may not remember his name each time, and that all he has to do is say, "hi, grammy.
00:16:24I'm john and I love you and everything's fine," we have that relationship back.
00:16:29By not explaining, by falling into those myths, we're really cheating them, as well as ourselves, by this lack of relationship that results.
00:16:39Loving families are thrown for a loop.
00:16:41It's a natural condition that happens and they believe their loved one is not there.
00:16:46It comes from another place as well, this, this stigma, this prejudice.
00:16:50It comes from fear.
00:16:52We have lots of research going on today that shows that over 50% of the people in this country and in europe and all over the world are afraid of dementia more than stroke.
00:17:02People are more afraid of dementia than dying of a heart attack.
00:17:06The image that people have in the general public of people with dementia is of some old person who can't remember anything, who's drooling, some dreadful picture.
00:17:16If we don't stop that negative self-fulfilling prophecy we will lose the relationship, that two way street that we can have with people with dementia.
00:17:25If someone is diagnosed with mci as a very early stage or someone says, "oh, my mom has dementia or my mom has alzheimer's," and her care partner believes that person is now on an inevitable and speedy downward slope, there's no engagement, there's no joy, there's doom and gloom, and there's definitely no learning.
00:17:45And I call that the despair model.
00:17:46There is however another model that we can have and that is the hope model, and that hope model begins by being in the present, first of all, by being in the present with that person, being sad, grieving about somebody having a dementia or having alzheimer's, but not saying that's the end, it's not a downward slope, living with it.
00:18:07Appreciating their abilities, there's less depression, less anxiety, less agitation, and better relationships.
00:18:14This switch from the despair model to the hope model about dementia is the key to building relationships, to giving people their personhood back and that's really what we need to understand as a society.
00:18:28Another colleague of mine, cameron kemp, when asked, "what do you mean people with dementia can " he always asked the same question.
00:18:35He says, "how many of you have ever visited somebody with dementia in an assisted program at lunchtime where they've been for perhaps a month, and then sat in their chair, the chair they always sit in at lunch?
00:18:50What do you think they'd say?
00:18:52'" so by the way, the trick is stand up right away and go someplace else, but what does that tell you?
00:18:59It tells you that in a month, or less, they've learned where ..that it's their chair.
00:19:05The reason that works is that there are four learning systems in the brain.
00:19:08And several don't work as well but several work very, very well and the four, first of all, are declarative.
00:19:14Declarative memory is the memory of facts.
00:19:16How many of you know the capital of texas?
00:19:21So we got 5 people out of 50 who remember this fact.
00:19:26The third president of the united states, anybody know what that, who he was?
00:19:32See?
00:19:32And I learned that in school.
00:19:34Um, thomas jefferson was the third president of the united states.
00:19:36Declarative memory is something we don't often keep in mind and remember.
00:19:41People with dementia, that is a problem for them, remembering facts.
00:19:44The second type of memory is called episodic.
00:19:47Episodic memory, the memory of events, like what you had for breakfast last thursday.
00:19:54How many of you remember?
00:19:56Okay.
00:19:56So what you had for breakfast was an event but it's not an important event, it's not an important episode and unless you have the exact same thing for breakfast everyday, you don't remember exactly what you had for breakfast last thursday or perhaps when I ask when's the last time you had a new england lobster?
00:20:09That you might remember because it's not so often and some people love lobster.
00:20:14But when I ask you where were you when the twin towers were attacked, many of you will remember.
00:20:19I was walking down the street with my wife a week ago and she looked over there, she said, "that's the café I was in when " she remembered that moment exquisitely because it was an important episode, not because it was just an episode.
00:20:32So that brings the third type of memory.
00:20:34The third type of learning system, memory system in the brain, is emotional memories.
00:20:40They can be about a person, they can be about a place, they can be about an object, they can be about an event.
00:20:44When something is emotional to us, like the twin towers, like when our children were born, like that first kiss or maybe it was the last kiss, we remember it better.
00:20:52We remember the feeling, as iris murdock remembered john bailey, not the name, not the exact person, but that feeling of the man who was always there.
00:21:02And the last one which is the most powerful type of learning is called procedural.
00:21:07Procedural learning is the learning you do by doing.
00:21:10Some people call it muscle memory, body memory, ..these engrams that get set in our brain, but if we do something over and over and over and over again that engram becomes very, very strong and we don't forget it.
00:21:24It's riding a bike, it's driving a car, it's playing tennis, it's playing croquet, it's playing golf, it's those things that we learn how to do that once we've learned it you feel like you've always learned it.
00:21:37I always knew how to ride a bike.
00:21:38There wasn't a time I didn't know how to learn to ride a bike.
00:21:40So procedural memory does not get hurt with dementia.
00:21:44And that's the learning system that people can still use forever.
00:21:48The strongest type of learning is when all four of these overlap.
00:21:53The first kiss is emotional, it's touch so it's procedural, there's a relationship there so it's building of the self, there's hope, there's a promise, there's pleasure, all the elements of a strong memory.
00:22:06So if we want people with dementia to learn, if we want to create that opportunity, we use all the memory systems at once, not just one, and definitely not just declarative, and not just episodic.
00:22:18So that is the trick for the learning.
00:22:19It's also the trick to learn ourselves.
00:22:21What I'd like to do in the next section is talk about how we can use people's ability to learn, people's ability and interest in learning, to channel that interest into giving people with dementia a life worth living through learning, which is what we're finding we can really do.
00:22:42[Music and applause] with john zeisel, educator,author and host zeiselthank you so much for being a part of the pbsfamily. welcome.
00:22:56 babette, it's a realpleasure being here.
00:22:57 well, we will get backto more you in just a moment.
00:23:00We're delighted to hear that,but right now we're here to ask you for your support.
00:23:04Hopeful aging has lessons thatwe can all use to navigate the very complicated landscape ofgrowing older in america.
00:23:11And it is exactly the kind ofunique television programming that you've come to expect fromthis pbs station.
00:23:17Please take a moment right nowand make that call of support.
00:23:21When you do, we have somegreat ways to say thank you and for more on that we go toour friend rudy cassillas.
00:23:27 when you contribute at the$75 level we will thank you with a copy of thebook, I'm still here: A breakthrough approachto understanding someone this book focuses on connecting with individualswith alzheimer's through the abilities that don'tdiminish with time, such as understanding music, art, andfacial expressions, and touch.
00:23:49By harnessing the creativity andemotional intelligence of people with alzheimer's it's possibleto offer them a quality life with connection to others and tothe world around them.
00:23:59When you support this station atthe $100 level, we will be able to send you a dvd of the programthat you have been watching, which includes an additional 20minutes of zeisel's lecture, as well as interviews withfamily and friends who have used the methods described in the dvdwith their loved one.
00:24:17When you are able to support usat the $200 level we will send you the complete learning forlife package, which includes the john zeisel, the dvd of the program you have been watching,with the bonus material, and the additional dvdlearning for life.
00:24:35The dvd provides valuableinsights, hints and tips to help caregivers and loved ones tosuccessfully incorporate the principles discussed in hopefulaging into their lives and the lives ofthose they love.
00:24:48The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates to help implement the lessons ofthe instructional dvd.
00:24:55This can help empower those withmemory issues to use their existing skills and creativityto continue to participate and enjoy their surroundings.
00:25:04This is the perfect way to bringall that you have learned from hopeful aging into your life.
00:25:10Please, make that call ofsupport now.
00:25:12Babette: thank you, rudy.
00:25:13Such amazing gifts for thisprogram.
00:25:15 zeisel, the popularperception is that people who receive an alzheimer's diagnosisare basically, and sadly, not only lost to themselvesbut those who love them.
00:25:27How would you respond to that?
00:25:28 babette, it's a myththat people are lost to themselves andlost to others.
00:25:33Nobody ever forgets theirchildren.
00:25:35Nobody ever forgets theirspouse that they've been with for 50 years.
00:25:39But they may forget the name.
00:25:41So what I tell people whoseparents have dementia is to introduce themselves each timethey get there.
00:25:47Say, "hi, I'm john, and I'm yourson and we " " " so both of them have a sense ofbeing there together.
00:25:59The second is the idea thatthere's no future.
00:26:02Dementia is a condition thatlasts between 10 to 15 years.
00:26:07There's a real push today forearly diagnosis.
00:26:10That means it's going tobe a condition that lasts from 15 to 25 years.
00:26:15That does constitute a future.
00:26:17So we've got to startunderstanding how to give meaning and a life worth livingto people with dementia during those 10, 15, 25 years.
00:26:26 I have to tellyou, when you took my hand that was very powerful.
00:26:29And I appreciate thepowerful message that you're sharing withus in this program.
00:26:33John: thank you.
00:26:34 well, the importantmessage of programs like hopeful aging couldn't be shared withoutthe generous support of viewers just like you.
00:26:41And really, only on pbs do yousee programs just like this.
00:26:46We come to you to help continue that tradition ofunique television.
00:26:50When you make that callright now, we have some great ways ofsaying thank you.
00:26:54And for more on that we goto rudy cassillas.
00:26:55Rudy?
00:26:57 here at this station wegive you programming that helps you to discover things thatfascinate and inspire you and that is exactly why during thesefundraising programs we ask that everyone watching in thiscommunity come together to be part of something bigger thanthemselves.
00:27:13When you support this station atthe $75 level we will be happy a breakthrough approach to understanding someone withalzheimer's, by dr. john zeisel.
00:27:24This 272-page soft cover bookfocuses on connecting with individuals with alzheimer'sthrough their abilities that don't diminish with time, suchas understanding music, art, facial expressions and touch.
00:27:38When you are able to supportthis station with a gift at the $200 level we will send you thecomplete learning for life package which includes the book,the dvd of the program you have been watching, plusbonus material, and the learning for lifetraining package.
00:27:54This exceptionally informativedvd was created especially for those caring for aloved one with memory loss in a home setting.
00:28:02The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates to help implement the lessons ofthe instructional dvd.
00:28:09At whatever level you cangive, your generous support is what we need most.
00:28:15Please go to the phone and makethat call now.
00:28:19Thank you.
00:28:20Babette: thank you, rudy.
00:28:21John, can you tell me more aboutyour book, I'm still here?
00:28:24I'm amazed that thefirst chapter is called embracing alzheimer's,which very few people do.
00:28:29You don't embrace thatdiagnosis.
00:28:31John: no.
00:28:32And people don't do it becauseit's not a great diagnosis to have but once you have ityou've gotta live a full life.
00:28:37So what the book is about,number one, is what people with dementia can do, not what theycan't do.
00:28:43The 80, 90 billion neurons thatare left with this illness, or 70 billion, it's so many wehave to focus on what they bring to the table ratherthan what's lost.
00:28:54The second is that we have toturn despair into hope.
00:28:57People get sad and it's fine tobe sad, but then to let that take over your life, itruins your relationship with the other person.
00:29:06Babette: and that's encouraging.
00:29:07We don't want to loseourselves, we don't want to lose the peoplethat we love.
00:29:10John: that's right.
00:29:11Babette: I love this.
00:29:12I love the message and I lovethe information that you're giving us, and the hope thatyou're giving us.
00:29:17And you know what?
00:29:17Giving you the latest researchand a fresh perspective, which this certainly is, that is ourgoal on this pbs station.
00:29:24That's what we do.
00:29:26But in order to make thatpossible we come to you and we ask for your support.
00:29:30And when you share your dollarswith us we use them to make fantastic programs like this,programs that are meaningful and make a difference.
00:29:40 when you are able to goall out for this station at $200 level, we will send you thecomplete learning for life package which includes the book,i'm still john zeisel, the dvd of the programyou have just been watching, plus bonus material andthe additional dvd, learning for life.
00:29:59The dvd provides valuableinsights, hints and tips to help caregivers and loved ones tosuccessfully incorporate the principles discussed in hopefulaging into their lives and the lives of thosethat they love.
00:30:13The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates to help implement the lessons ofthe dvd.
00:30:19This can help empower those withmemory issues to use their existing skills and creativity,to continue to participate and enjoy their surroundings.
00:30:29Remember, we need your financialsupport to continue our mission and to keep bringing youprograms like this one.
00:30:36And now is a time for you tocall in and express your support, and now back to babetteand john zeisel.
00:30:45Babette: thank you, rudy.
00:30:46 zeisel, this program is sopowerful and so emotional.
00:30:50What makes it so different?
00:30:52 well, the differenceis that we're stressing the respect and dignityof the person above all.
00:30:58So there's no, "i know betterthan you," there's no, "you're learning from me,"there's no, "i'm taking care of you." it's a mutualrespectful relationship.
00:31:06 such an important andpowerful topic, and we're going back to more hopeful aging injust a moment.
00:31:12If you've already called withyour financial support, thank you so, so much, andif you haven't, there's still some time left.
00:31:20Take advantage of the greatthank you gifts we've created zeisel's veryimportant work and expertise into yours and your loved ones'lives.
00:31:30We appreciate andvalue your support at whatever level you can give.
00:31:35Thank you so much.
00:31:36 john zeisel.
00:31:42The most rewarding and healing.
00:31:44And that is not a question anymore for me, it's true.
00:31:48And the lessons that I've learned are all about that.
00:31:52That we don't have to be afraid of old age, we don't have to fear it, we don't have to worry about losing relationships, and in fact we should start now, and I think this is why we call it hopeful aging, we can have a positive experience aging no matter what.
00:32:09Woman: you have to adapt to them.
00:32:12 they're still there and they have their own opinions.
00:32:15It's really nice to see.
00:32:16 it was very important for him to feel useful.
00:32:19It was a main part of his personality, always.
00:32:23It just made him feel needed.
00:32:25 john zeisel believes, and I now believe, that there are important things left in the minds of people with alzheimer's that are often overlooked because the disability is so severe.
00:32:42But there is a sense of wonder, there are artistic senses that are still there.
00:32:49[Music - applause] so I know you're all waiting for the meat in the sandwich, but I'm not going to give that to you.
00:33:01What I'm going to give you, however, is, is, is sort of an insight into a whole way of learning and a whole system of learning that we've been developing for 2 years that build on all of those principles.
00:33:14So successful learning works best when there are these three elements, whether you have dementia or not and that's a very important part.
00:33:22So the first one is the subject matter has to be meaningful.
00:33:27If it's not meaningful, if it's just busy work, people won't remember, they won't learn.
00:33:32I didn't learn busy work when I was in school.
00:33:37My kids didn't learn busy work when they were in school.
00:33:40But when it meant something to them they did.
00:33:42The second element of successful learning is that it's personal, that has something to do with the sense of who you are and the sense of self.
00:33:50Everything we know is personal.
00:33:52So knowledge has to be personal.
00:33:54And the third is it has to rely on procedural and emotional learning systems.
00:33:58So those are the threeelements of learning: Meaning, personal contentand procedural learning.
00:34:06Now there are six characteristics of successful learning that we've built into this learning system that we've developed.
00:34:14The first one is that learning, to be successful, is non-competitive.
00:34:18So competition is okay for certain things, maybe to learn how to play tennis better, but learning that is non-competitive is better than when it is competitive.
00:34:26It sits better, it lasts longer.
00:34:29The second thing is when it's based on existing skills.
00:34:31When what the person can do is part of already, what they already have as skills, is built into the learning system.
00:34:39The third is using personal experience.
00:34:42So if I already have certain experiences, if I already know how to do something and you build that into my learning system I'm going to learn better.
00:34:49The fourth is building in a link to that hardwired curiosity that I talked about.
00:34:54If you get me going because I'm curious, because I want to learn, I want to delve into something, I'm going to learn better.
00:35:01The fifth is linking the learning to some hardwired ability and specifically caring and compassion for others.
00:35:10And the last is thatlearning is linked to hardwired arts and creativity.
00:35:15So my colleague sean caulfield and I invented a program called artists for alzheimer's a while ago, artists come in and work with people with dementia just to be part of their lives, to enrich their lives.
00:35:27What you see around you is the art that was created by these art classes.
00:35:31And what we realized after a while was you could see into the minds of people, as well as get into their memories.
00:35:38Behind me is a painting of a bear.
00:35:41And it was designed by wolf, a man who had been in a concentration camp for 5 years.
00:35:47He never spoke, he never spoke.
00:35:50And I was in new york where he was living and I held it up as he was walking down the hall.
00:35:57" that was 6 months after he painted that painting.
00:36:02If you get people with, with, with any kind of, of cognitive issues, whether they're just being old and have cognitive issues or have dementia and have cognitive issues, and give them something meaningful and, and show them that you respect them, their memories are strong and vibrant and that's what we're learning.
00:36:21Creativity, going back to thatearly part of why our brains exist, our brains exist to becurious and creative.
00:36:30That's why we're here and it's how we've survived.
00:36:33So linking into it is an essential part of this.
00:36:37We call it the c-map program.
00:36:40C-map is actually an abbreviation for cognitive map and cognitive map to use again the brain is that system in our brain that helps us find out where we are, where we're going that makes sense of the world around us.
00:36:57So the cognitive map is the organizing principle that our brains develop.
00:37:02So I asked you for example how you get back to your car and if you have any idea about how you'd get back to your car from here, it's your cognitive map that's creating that.
00:37:13The c-map learning process that we've developed supports everybody's cognitive map whether you have dementia or not, the, the system is designed to get our brains back on track and to help people find out where they are, see where they're going, understand things better.
00:37:30It's a learning system that's based on saying to people, "what would you like to learn?
00:37:35" because we want to create a learning system that gives people meaning, that's personal, that's all those things that I talked about before.
00:37:44We're looking at the neurosciences as a way to understand the brain so that when we say people with dementia can learn, when we develop this system based on our understanding of how the brain works and of what all these different neuroscientists have been studying for years to understand mental processes.
00:38:02There are eight principles and I would like to unpack them one at a time.
00:38:07So the first one is the subjectmatter has to be meaningful.
00:38:09Which is to say, well what would you like to do today dad?
00:38:13What, what would you like to learn about?
00:38:14Whether it's going to a museum or whether it's creating holiday cards, it doesn't matter what that is, the issue is to say, what's meaningful to you and then to help that person achieve that, that, their goal.
00:38:28We do that by creating opportunities.
00:38:30Now, setting up the opportunity is really very simple if you care about it.
00:38:36Somebody says I want to paint, you create the objects and the setting that it won't bother anybody.
00:38:40If somebody says they want to learn how to play croquette, one gets a croquette set.
00:38:45There's no limit to creating those opportunities once one has listened to the person.
00:38:50The third is choice.
00:38:51A choice can always be given to people, what would you like to learn specifically is what we're talking about.
00:38:57The fourth element is building on people's experience.
00:39:01Everybody has experience.
00:39:03Now it's not simply saying, your whole life you used to do x so we're going to have you do x again.
00:39:09We had somebody living with us who, who was a postman, and when we said how would you like to deliver the mail to everybody, he said I was a postman for 50 years, I hate delivering mail and I'm not interested in doing that.
00:39:21If you build on people's experience and give them a sense of self back, they don't do those things that people say or picture people with dementia doing.
00:39:31The fifth issue is basic skills.
00:39:34Now what do we mean by exploiting people's basic skills?
00:39:37We mean using the hardwired abilities that they have.
00:39:41Long-lasting brain skills, I talked about one hardwired skill being compassion, etcetera, there are a bunch of others that people never lose.
00:39:49The first one is sorting.
00:39:52Somebody says I'm interested in learning about comedy, you can look up a lot of jokes and you can sort the funny jokes and the not funny jokes.
00:40:03You can read all the jokes, is this funny, nope, let's put it in this box, funny oh yea, this is very funny let's put it here, sorting between those two things.
00:40:09Matching is another hardwired ability.
00:40:12It's a learning principle that people never forget.
00:40:14If you take a, a photocopy, a color photocopy of a whole bunch of objects and put them out and then put all the objects here and say let's match those objects to one another.
00:40:26Another type of matching is templates, so you can say well we're going to set the table but the table can be, the table mat can be a, a table setting, so people know what to do.
00:40:36They don't have to think about, they're matching the table.
00:40:39Uh, pouring, pouring things from one object into another is an equally hardwired skill as sorting, matching, etcetera.
00:40:47Reading, for people who can read, and there are ways to test people's reading is also a hardwired skill.
00:40:51Once they've got it because they've learned how to read, once they can read forever, you have to find out what the right type is, you have to find out what kinds of things they can read, but that's another skill to build on, if people can.
00:41:03You can easily say, we're going to make dinner or we're going to learn how to make new recipes and you take the recipe book and you break it up so that the templates are easier to follow, and you get all of the material that needs to go in but instead of saying, here's the list, first you have to take the flour and put the meat in the flour and fry it and then put it in something else, you can have pictures or you could take each of the objects and start off by having color photocopies of the objects put onto templates and say the first step is let's go to the cupboard and get the materials we need to make the, the recipe.
00:41:41You can spend all day matching, sorting, using templates, and making an incredibly good meal and learning how to do that and getting the person to say, now I know how to do that and do it again, eventually they'll in fact learn how to cook that meal.
00:41:56The sixth element, was feelings, the emotional memory.
00:41:59If you can work on hardwired feelings, if you can bring those into the picture people can learn twice as well.
00:42:05So caring for other people, I told you this is hardwired, it's in our dna, making valentine cards for other people is a, is a way of building in caring.
00:42:19One of the things that happened with our c-map group was one person got sick, and had to go to the hospital.
00:42:28What do you think they did first?
00:42:30Made cards.
00:42:31What do you think they did second?
00:42:32They all got together, they said we've got to go to the hospital to visit this man and, and all of a sudden it was amazing to see seven people with dementia all walking into the hospital to visit somebody else because they cared for him.
00:42:45Again that, that building in hard, hardwired caring is, can be done anywhere.
00:42:52It's very easy to do that at home, to read a newspaper, to find the, the articles about the needy, to do something for them, to say let's do it.
00:43:00It just needs some creativity to get people to learn.
00:43:03 wong was in the hospital and they said we want to go, nobody said it's too hard to get you there.
00:43:10We all said, great let's all go visit mr.
00:43:10Wong and it took half a day, and they felt good because it was visiting their friend that they learn with, that's part of the system.
00:43:21Hardwired feelings include joy, they include curiosity, they include anger at things.
00:43:27Caring for others is a big one.
00:43:28One of the interesting things that happened wong wong explained that he was brought up in a chinese restaurant, and they said well what does that mean, and he said well we used to make lots of wontons.
00:43:39So there were two things that happened, first they said would you teach us how to make wontons, and he said absolutely, and now he felt wonderful because he knew who he was.
00:43:48The second thing they said is let's make wontons for other people.
00:43:51They cooked them, they fried them up.
00:43:53And they said well we can't serve the wontons to our friends if we don't taste them first.
00:43:59Right, because that wouldn't work, we gotta make sure they're good wontons.
00:44:02So they voted, one person votes yes, she voted no, and the, and the team by the way said she's always, she's always a negative person so she doesn't count.
00:44:11She voted yes and lo and behold they ate the wontons and they made more wontons and they served them to other people.
00:44:17Just helping other people is so hardwired for us it helps us learn.
00:44:23And you can do this at home, you can do this in a, in a group setting, it doesn't matter.
00:44:28In every place you can say, how can we help other people?
00:44:31The seventh principle isthat we have to build on procedural and emotionallearning systems, not episodic anddeclarative systems.
00:44:40Every morning at home instead of thinking of it as, I've got to feed that person, get them in, get them out of the kitchen, and rather say okay the morning is a time when we get together, we spend time together, we talk about whatever comes up.
00:44:56It doesn't matter what they remember.
00:44:58They remember it's good news, it's bad news, they talk to each other about it.
00:45:02And the last one, the last learning principle is very important, don't test.
00:45:08Avoid testing.
00:45:08The minute you say, "but didyou, do you remember yesterday," or "but, what did we learn yesterday," as opposed to saying "here's what we learned yesterday," you reverse the whole system.
00:45:20So what does the person get out of all this?
00:45:22What is all this about?
00:45:23Is it merely because we're trying to say, yes people with dementia should learn?
00:45:27This story about keeping the brain healthy, about how does the brain work, about creativity, about curiosity, and about learning, people with dementia can have a life worth living.
00:45:38And they can have a life worth living if we give them that dignity and that respect, but if we help them learn, if we help their brains do what they're supposed to be doing, and what they were born to do which is be curious and be creative.
00:45:50By doing the kinds of things I've been talking about, we're giving people with dementiatheir human rights.
00:45:55And I consider what we are about and what many people in this field are about, trying to help people age with hope, age with dignity, is that it's a human rights issue.
00:46:07We're giving people dignity, we're giving people the ability to have self-fulfillment, to participate in society, to receive and give care to others, and we're giving them the amount of independence, the degree of independence that they can, they can handle.
00:46:22Those are human rights issues.
00:46:24Societies are judged by how they treat their most vulnerable citizens.
00:46:27And we will be judged by that.
00:46:28And the most vulnerable citizens we have today in our society are people with dementia.
00:46:33And so this hope model that, that underlies the learning, and that underlies this whole view towards dementia, the one that says embrace the present, let's not, let's grieve but let's not let that grief dominate how we treat each other.
00:46:50If you get people with, with, with any kind of, of cognitive issues, whether they're just being old and have cognitive issues or have dementia and have cognitive issues, and give them something meaningful and, and show them that you respect them, their memories are strong and vibrant and that's what we're learning.
00:47:09Doing the kinds of things we're talking about, by understanding the brain, by being in the present, by understanding what people can do rather than what they can't, we will build and maintain the relationships between people with dementia and ourselves, people with dementia and others, which will be a benefit for the person, for families, for paid caregivers, and for society as a whole.
00:47:32That we will maintain those relationships that mean something to us and that we won't abandon our relationships to our parents, to our spouses, and to the families that we love.
00:47:41Thank you.
00:47:42[Music - applause] hi, I am babettedavidson and I'm in the studio john zeisel, host ofhopeful aging, and not only are we enjoying this greatprogram but we're also here to ask you for your support.
00:47:55It's the valuable dollars thatwe raise through programming like this that enables us tocontinue to bring programs like this to everyone in ourcommunity.
00:48:04So please, take amoment right now and call the number on your screen.
00:48:09When you do, we havesome great ways to thank you foryour generosity.
00:48:13And for more on that we go torudy casillas.
00:48:16Rudy: thank you, babette.
00:48:17When you contribute at the $75level we will be happy to send abreakthrough approach to understanding someone withalzheimer's by dr. john zeisel.
00:48:27When you support this station atthe $100 level we will thank you with a dvd of the program thatyou have been watching, which zeisel's lecture, as well as interviews withfamily and friends who have used the methods described in the dvdwith their loved one.
00:48:44When you are able to support usat the $200 level we will send you the complete learning forlife package which includes the john zeisel, the dvd of the program you have been watchingplus bonus material, and the additional dvd learning forlife.
00:49:01This specially createdinstructional dvd is tailored to the needs of viewers caringfor a person with memory loss in a home setting.
00:49:10The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates which can be printed out andused and reused to help organize an environment that encourageslearning, memory, and empowers those with memory issues to usetheir existing skills and creativity to continueto participate and enjoy their surroundings.
00:49:29At whatever level you can give,your generous support is what we need most.
00:49:35Please go to the phone and makethat call now.
00:49:39And now more from babette anddr. zeisel.
00:49:41 we all know that activeengagement with our world and our community is vital no matterwhat our age.
00:49:47And for those of you who haveengaged with us by calling the number on your screen we thankyou so much.
00:49:53 zeisel, so much of whatyou talk about is so contrary, perhaps, to whatwe've heard about alzheimer's in the community.
00:50:01 there are three things ithink that are new messages, or important messages that are notdone a lot.
00:50:06The first is that we have to seethe positive through the fog of this condition, throughalzheimer's and dementia, even if we're sad, even if there areproblems.
00:50:16The second is that engagement.
00:50:18You talked about activeengagement, that that's the antidote to all thesymptoms that we find.
00:50:22It's the antidote to anxiety,it's the antidote to aggression, it's the antidote to agitationand it's the antidote to apathy and that antidote means wecan overcome the symptoms through active engagement.
00:50:36And what does active engagementmean?
00:50:38And this is the third message,it means a life worth living through meaningful thingsfor people with dementia, through art, through music,and through learning, which is one of the bigmessages of this program.
00:50:49 this is such a powerfuland hopeful message.
00:50:53We all want to be engaged inthings that have meaning, and meaningful engagementis what we're all about here at public television.
00:51:00So please go to your phone andengage with us directly.
00:51:03Make that call.
00:51:04Show that you support the kindsof programs that make you think, entertain and engage you, likehopeful aging and when you do call we have some greatways to say thank you, and rudy casillas ishere to tell you more.
00:51:17 when you contributeat the $75 level we will thank you witha copy of the book a breakthroughapproach to understanding someone with alzheimer'sby dr. john zeisel.
00:51:27This book focuses on connectingwith individuals with alzheimer's through theabilities that don't diminish with time, such asunderstanding music, art and facial expressions,and touch.
00:51:38By harnessing the creativity andemotional intelligence of people with alzheimer's it's possibleto offer them a quality life with connection to others and tothe world around them.
00:51:48When you support this station atthe $100 level we will be able to send you a dvd of the programthat you have been watching, which includes an additional 20minutes of zeisel's lecture as well as interviews withfamily and friends who have used the methods described in the dvdwith their loved one.
00:52:06When you are able to support usat the $200 level we will send you the complete learning forlife package which includes john zeisel, the dvd of the program you have beenwatching plus bonus material and the additional dvdlearning for life.
00:52:24The dvd provides valuableinsights, hints and tips to help caregivers and loved ones tosuccessfully incorporate the principles discussed inhopeful aging into their lives and the lives of thosethat they love.
00:52:37The learning for life packagealso includes a cd of templates to help implement the lessons ofthe instructional dvd.
00:52:44This can help empower those withmemory issues to use their existing skills and creativityto continue to participate and enjoy their surroundings.
00:52:53This is the perfect way to bringall that you have learned from hopeful aging into your life.
00:52:58Please make that call of supportnow.
00:53:01 zeisel, the book issuch a great resource for the alzheimer's journey, as youcall it, but you put together a package of tremendousmaterial to assist us.
00:53:11Can you talk more about how thedvds and templates, how does that all work in helping us aswe take the alzheimer's journey?
00:53:19 so what the dvd includesis procedures to use, questions to ask.
00:53:24We always say start byintroducing yourself, start by asking the person if they'rewilling to do an activity.
00:53:29Start by showing themand using templates and modeling how to do it.
00:53:34So instead of saying, "go dothis," you say, "here are the three steps," and they followthe three steps.
00:53:39It's not quite like paintingby the numbers but it's more or less that.
00:53:43So they don't have tofigure out what the whole painting's gonna bebut they make a bunch and many importantdecisions along the way.
00:53:50So they're followinga set of procedures and they rememberthem eventually.
00:53:55And the dvd includes thosetemplates which are those sets of procedures.
00:53:58And what you should really do isopen up t he dvd, pick one or another of these activities todo, follow them, that's that five minutes I was talkingabout, get the five minutes right, then do a second one,then do a third one, and you'll find that it can fill the day.
00:54:13 so there are actualthings for people to walk through and do that will make adifference in how they look at and treat this in their ownfamily?
00:54:23 and on there, thereare people I work at hearthstone and at the I'mstill here foundation who are demonstratinghow to do it.
00:54:30So the demonstrations are rightthere, too.
00:54:31so you're not just reading it, you're actuallyseeing how it should operate?
00:54:36John: yes.
00:54:36Babette: that's a greatresource.
00:54:37It's amazing to me that choicecreates so much meaning.
00:54:41John: absolutely.
00:54:42 but you know, choiceand empowerment, creativity, engagement with our loved onesand our community, these are all things that you and i, we allvalue.
00:54:52This station values those, too.
00:54:53From programs like downtownabbey to nova to hopeful aging, this station, your station,offers you and this community choice, a pretty importantchoice, and we give you a chance to engage with television thatchanges how you see the world.
00:55:09But you know what, we needyour help to continue to make this a reality.
00:55:13You now have a choice.
00:55:15You can go to your phone andmake the call, the numbers are on the bottom of your screen, ornot.
00:55:20But when you do, we have somemarvelous ways to say thank you.
00:55:25 when you contribute at the$200 level we will send you the complete learning for lifepackage which includes the book, I'm still here, the dvd of theprogram you've been watching and the additional dvd, learning forlife.
00:55:39Your support is criticaland is deeply appreciated by everyone in this community.
00:55:44 zeisel, thank youso much for bringing this inspirational program to pbs.
00:55:49And now that it's over and we'veall enjoyed it, for all of us watching it, what would you likeus to take with us?
00:55:55 don't let the burdenof dementia and alzheimer's in your family bring you down.
00:56:01The second thing is,don't ever underestimate the person with dementia.
00:56:05Even when we go to the museumand I say, "that person won't be able to describe this painting,"they do it anyway.
00:56:13I'm always surprised.
00:56:14The third is, no one's gonna dothis for us.
00:56:18You gotta do it yourself.
00:56:19And the fourth one is take careof yourself.
00:56:22You can't always be taking careof someone else without taking care of yourself, and only bytaking care of yourself will you have the energy to do all ofthis hard work.
00:56:33Babette: it's such an importantmessage.
00:56:34Thank you so much forbeing with us and sharing your time and your information.
00:56:38We want to thank rudy cassillasand to all of you who have made that call of support.
00:56:43You have no idea what adifference you make to this station with your dollars.
00:56:48I am so proud of the shows thatpbs and this station are able to make available to you and if youhaven't yet seized the opportunity to be a part of thisgreat initiative, this is it, we are out of time, we need you togo right now to the phone, call the number on your screen, andlet this station know that programs like hopeful aging areexactly the type of inspiration, encouragement andinformation that you expect and need from your pbs station.
00:57:18So dr. zeisel, thank you again.
00:57:20John: thank you.
00:57:21 and to each of you,thank you for making a difference right now, righthere, at this station.
00:57:26] [captioning provided by santa feproductions] explore new worlds and new ideas through programs like this.
00:58:23Made available for everyone through contributions to yourpbs station from viewers like you.
00:58:31Thank you.

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